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What’s the difference between FR & AR?


Arming your crew with the appropriate FR gear is a feat in itself. Navigating the ever-changing sea of standards? Now that’s another beast entirely. Bulwark is here to help you choose the right FR program by ensuring you have a thorough grasp on the standards and what they mean for you—and your crew.

When the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) introduced the term “Arc-Rated” or “AR” in its 2012 revision to NFPA 70E, it was a bit of a head-scratcher. The question on every safety manager’s mind was: what’s the difference between FR and AR? According to Bulwark’s Technical Training Manager, Derek Sang, the most basic and important thing to know when it comes to FR and AR is that all arc-rated clothing is flame resistant, but not all flame resistant clothing is arc-rated.

For a piece of clothing to be considered flame resistant, the fabric used to make the garment must withstand ignition and/or rapidly self-extinguish in order to protect the wearer from the dangers of flash fire, arc flash, molten metals and other hazards. In the event of a flash fire or arc flash, the FR PPE worn must resist catching fire, melting, and continuing to burn after the initial flash to act as a barrier between the wearer and the hazard.

The fabric used to create arc-rated clothing is subject to additional tests, above and beyond fabric labeled simply “FR.” Primarily, it is exposed to a series of arc flashes to determine how much energy the fabric is able to block before it would likely cause the wearer to obtain a 2nd degree burn, 50% of the time. The result of this test, expressed in calories, is known as the Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV).

Current standards for arc flash protection, detailed by NFPA 70E, state that all PPE clothing must also be flame resistant to qualify for an arc rating. In other words: all AR clothing is FR, but not all FR clothing is AR. This is because, based on the results of the series of tests outlined above, equipment rated FR may not always provide the adequate level of protection for workers who are at risk of encountering arc flashes. These employees—general industry electricians (70E)— must wear the appropriate level of AR clothing for the hazard, in order to reduce their risk of serious injury or death caused by an arc flash.

Industry News
Top 10 Laundry Tips

As most of us know all too well, there’s no such thing as wash-and-go when it comes to caring for your PPE. Proper care and maintenance of FR/AR clothing is essential to its effectiveness. Most industry standards recommend following compliant garment manufacturers’ instructions, while others offer more specific guidance. To keep it simple, we’ve compiled a list of our top 10 tips to maximize your PPE’s FR protection, wash after wash.

Read on to see our Top 10 Laundry Tips:

1. Do not use any kind of bleach or peroxide

2. Do not use any additive that could build up and impede FR performance such as fabric softeners or starch.

3. Wash FR/AR garments separately

4. Turn FR/AR garments inside out to help color retention and preserve appearance

5. Use liquid detergent for best results

6. Avoid the hottest washing and drying temperatures to reduce the impact of shrinkage

7. For tough stains, soak garments in liquid detergent or non-bleach, non-peroxide pre-wash stain removers before laundering.

8. For even tougher stains, FR garments may be dry cleaned

9. Tumble dry on low setting and do not over dry

10. Rewash garments with lingering odor

Safety Updates
Managing Cold Stress

Workers in the oil and gas and electric utility industries frequently face flash fire, arc flash and heat stress hazards. But one hazard that may not be as talked about is cold stress. Cold stress occurs when skin temperature drops, lowering internal body temperatures and disabling the body’s ability to warm itself. It can lead to several medical conditions, including trench foot, chilblains, frostbite and hypothermia.

 

Warning signs of cold stress:

• Shivering
• Teeth chattering
• Numbness
• Stiffness 
• Cold, stinging, aching
• Loss of coordination
• Dilated pupils
• Slurred speech
• Disorientation and confusion
• Unusual fatigue

According to OSHA General Duty Clause, the responsibility for worker safety is squarely on the employer. According to Section 5(a)(1):

Each employer (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees; (2) shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act.

 

Tips on how you can reduce cold stress for you and your team:

• Train workers on the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and work practices to reduce cold stress risk
• Implement safe work practices
• Help workers who are used to working in warm areas build up a tolerance for working in the cold environment
• Schedule maintenance and repair jobs for warmer months
• Schedule cold-weather jobs for the warmer parts of the day
• Reduce the physical demands of workers
• Use relief workers or assign extra workers for long, demanding jobs
• Provide workers with warm liquids
• Provide workers with warm areas during peak cold periods
• Include a thermometer and chemical hot packs in first aid kits
• Train workers to avoid touching cold metal surfaces with bare skin
• Monitor workers’ physical condition and have them monitor their coworkers

Another great method to keep workers safe from potential cold stress is to utilize a layering system. A layering system allows workers the flexibility to remain more comfortable and safer in a variety of conditions. As long as the layers are compliant to the assessed hazard and are layered correctly according to industry regulations. Try Bulwark Protection’s Arc Rating Calculator to see how your layers add up. 

 

Here are a few critical considerations when layering FR/AR garments:

• Always layer FR/AR garments underneath FR/AR outerwear
• The arc rating of the outermost FR/AR layer must be sufficient to prevent break open and ignition of any flammable base layer
• Non-FR/AR outerwear should never be worn over FR/AR garments

Cold stress shouldn’t be a risk you and your team overlook. That’s why it’s not only important to incorporate a comprehensive layered PPE program, but to be aware of the warning signs of cold stress and how you can reduce the risk.

Bulwark FR Handbook

For industries operating in an inherently dangerous environment, the importance of selecting the right Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) can’t be understated. Our FR Handbook is a guide for safety managers, or whoever is tasked with ensuring the safety of their workers, through the process of selection, implementation, care, and maintenance and to outline the various FR (Flame-Resistant) and AR (Arc-Rated) clothing options that are available and compliant with the many regulations, responsibilities, and requirements.

Layering FR/AR Garments for Protection Against Arc Flash

Arc flash is a dangerous reality for those who work in the electrical industries. Since arc flash incidents cannot be predicted, it’s important that workers wear personal protective equipment (PPE) at all times. This whitepaper discusses how a layered system can protect workers while providing comfort and safety.

Fill out the form below to download the whitepaper.

Safety Updates
The ABC’s of PPE

Building a PPE program that meets all safety requirements and meets your personal needs is no easy task. You must select the right garments based on the unique hazards of your industry, in addition to important factors like comfort, durability and laundering. But even the best PPE program in the world is ineffective without the proper implementation and training. Below, we’ll provide you with a step-by-step process for designing, implementing and maintaining your PPE program.

Hazard Assessment
The first step in the creation of any PPE program is the Hazard Assessment. Federal regulations require employers to assess the workplace to determine if hazards that require the use of personal protective equipment are present or are likely to be present. Using the Hazard Assessment Checklist, you will conduct a walk-through survey of the workplace to identify potential hazards. These include impacts, combustible dust, fire/heat, and chemical hazards, among others. When conducting your assessment, be sure to consider workplace, procedural, and environmental hazards.

Selecting the Right PPE
Once you’ve established the need for PPE, it’s time to determine the degree of protection required based on your particular hazards. We do this by matching the hazard to the regulations, which inform what, if any, PPE is required. Industry consensus standards may be used to guide selection decisions, and the best way to cite these standards is by industry. For the main industries Bulwark serves, the hazards and standards are as follows:

Oil & Gas, which includes exploration, drilling, field services, refinement, and chemical, faces the known hazard of flash fire, a rapidly moving flame front that expands through diffuse fuel without creating blast pressure.

NFPA® 2112 and NFPA® 2113 are the “go-to” industry consensus standards that address flash fire. NFPA® 2113 focuses on how organizations and employers—as well as individual wearers—should choose the correct garment based on certain criteria.

Electric Utility workers, including those working in the transmission, distribution, generation, and metering of power utilities, are exposed to hazards associated with electrical energy, primarily electrical arcs or arc flashes.

General Industry: Wherever workers may be exposed to hazards associated with electrical energy, employers must make sure they are protected. This includes electricians, maintenance workers, and operators.

NFPA 70E® requires AR (or arc-rated) clothing for any potential exposure above 1.2 cal/cm2, which equals the onset of a second-degree burn. The level of protection must be based on the task at hand, and most general industry tasks will require CAT2 or higher. It’s necessary to carefully consider the actual risk associated with a job and to match the protection category accordingly.
NOTE: NFPA 70E® applies only to general industry electrical safety. To address specific circumstances for utility, OSHA published 1910.269 & 1926.960, which state that power utilities are required to wear arc-rated clothing which matches the potential threat as determined by a proper hazard analysis.

Training
Employers implementing a PPE program are required by OSHA 1910.132(f)(1) and all industry consensus standards to provide training to each employee. According to OSHA, each employee who is required to wear PPE should at least know when it is necessary, what exactly is necessary, the do’s and don’ts of proper wear, what its limitations are, and how to properly care for it.

NFPA® 2112 A.5.1.1 offers specific requirements about the information employers must provide to their employees.

Maintenance
Proper care and maintenance of FR/AR clothing is essential to the effectiveness of your PPE program. While most industry standards recommend following the instructions provided by compliant garment manufacturers, some standards offer specific guidance, and there are a few basic rules that apply across all relevant standards.

1. Do not use any kind of bleach or peroxide

2. Do not use any additive that could build up and impede FR performance

3. Wash FR/AR garments separately

4. Turn FR/AR garments inside out to help color retention and preserve appearance

5. Use liquid detergent for best results

6. Avoid the hottest temperature to reduce the impact of shrinkage

7. For tough stains, apply liquid detergent or stain remover and soak garment

8. For even tougher stains, Bulwark® FR garments can be dry cleaned

9. Tumble dry on low setting and do not over dry

10. Rewash garments with lingering odor

11. Never use DEET or any other flammable substances on FR/AR clothing.

12. Any repairs must be made with fabric and findings that match the protection level of the original garment.

 

More specific regulations about PPE maintenance are defined in NFPA® 2113 and NFPA 70E®.

Ask An Expert
What is a Hazard Risk Assessment?

AR, FR, ATPV, OSHA. The list goes on and on. If there’s one thing that’s true about FR safety, it’s that there are a lot of terms to memorize. It’s not always easy to keep the various words and acronyms straight, but when it comes to building and implementing an effective safety program, knowing your FR vocabulary is important. Here, our FR experts have compiled the most important of those terms in a handy alphabetized glossary so you can create a culture of compliance.

Arc Flash
An arc flash is a type of electrical explosion where temperatures can reach or exceed 35,000 °F. The Arc Flash hazard affects all who work in and around energized electrical equipment. This can include general industry electricians, maintenance workers and operators, as well as our electric utilities, including transmission, distribution, generation and metering.

Arc-Rated (AR) Protective Clothing
Arc-rated protective clothing protects from arc flash and electric arc hazards. AR garments are measured in cal/cm². The total AR clothing system must meet or exceed required arc protection levels. Remember, all AR is FR, but not all FR is AR.

Breakopen
Breakopen is the formation of holes in the fabric during arc rating testing. This is the point of failure of FR protective garments.

EBT
Energy Break-Open Threshold is an alternative measure to ATPV when that measure cannot be used due to breakopen.

Flash Fire
A rapid moving flame front that can be caused by a diffuse fuel, such as dust, gas, or the vapors of an ignitable liquid, without the production of damaging pressure. Flash fire is the primary hazard in the Oil & Gas industry, which includes exploration, drilling, field services and refining.

Hazard Risk Assessment
The first step in the creation of any PPE program is the Hazard Assessment. Federal regulations require employers to assess the workplace to determine if hazards that require the use of personal protective equipment are present or are likely to be present. These include impacts, combustible dust, fire/heat, and chemical hazards, among others.

HRC (Hazard Risk Category)
Hazard risk categories are defined by NFPA® 70E and assigned based on risk associated with electrical safety and arc flash. HRC levels determine the appropriate ATPV of flame-resistant clothing for a given task.

PPE Category
Replaces HRC in 2015 edition of NFPA 70E, the “0” category was eliminated in NFPA 70E 2015. The minimum ATPV’s for PPE Category 1 through 4 are the same as they were for HRC, and the new PPE table only specifies PPE for work within the arc flash boundary.

CAT 2
HRC 2 rated garments have an arc rating between 8 cal/cm² and 25 cal/cm² and are often referred to as “daily wear.”

CAT 3
HRC 3 rated garments have an arc rating between 25 cal/cm² and 40 cal/cm².

CAT 4
HRC 4 rated garments have an arc rating equal or greater than 40 cal/cm². These high ratings are achieved with a layered FR system. Download our FR Layering Fact Sheet to learn the do’s and don’ts of layering for FR.

Inherently Flame Resistant
Inherently flame resistant fabrics are engineered to be flame-resistant at the fiber level, and do not require any additional finishing.

NFPA®
The National Fire Protection Association is an agency whose task it is to promote and improve fire protection and prevention. They publish National Fire Codes.

NFPA® 2112
Refers to NFPA’s “Standard on Flame Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Flash Fire.” NFPA® 2112 is the “go-to” industry consensus standard that addresses flash fire. It defines the testing methods and performance requirements for flame-resistant fabrics for this hazard.

NFPA® 70E
The “Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace,” NFPA® 70E is meant to protect those working around potential arc flash hazards. Note that NFPA® 70E applies only to general industry electrical safety, not to electric utility workers.

OSHA

Founded by the Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970, The Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) mission is to “assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance.” Their general duty clause ensures a safe workplace for all employees and is the basis for all industry consensus standards. OSHA determines regulations and standards related to personal protective equipment.

OSHA 1910.269

The regulation states that power utilities make reasonable estimates of the incident heat energy to which their employee would be exposed, and that employees exposed to hazards from electric arcs wear AR clothing and other protective equipment with an arc rating greater than or equal to the estimated heat energy.

ANSI

Founded in 1918, The American National Standards Institute coordinates and develops voluntary standards for products, services, and systems. The organization’s goals include performance consistency and product safety. It is the U.S. member body to ISO and IEC.

PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

Personal protective equipment is specialized safety gear worn by an employee for protection against a hazard. Flame resistant/arc rated garments are a form of personal protective clothing worn against thermal hazards.

Moisture Wicking

Moisture wicking fabrics pull moisture (sweat) away from the body and dry quickly, keeping the wearer cooler, dryer, and more comfortable. Bulwark iQ Series® FR Comfort Knits and Wovens are among the best moisture wicking FR garments available.

Breathability

Breathability refers to how well a fabric allows air to be transmitted through the material. The more air that passes through, the cooler the wearer stays. Bulwark iQ Series® Endurance Collection is the first of its kind to offer high level FR protection in a material that is extremely breathable and durable.

How to manage cold stress on the job.

Cold stress may not be as well-known as heat stress, but when the temperature drops, it can pose a significant danger. Employers have many options for helping workers manage their exposure to cold while protecting them from flash fire and arc flash. This whitepaper discusses how you can layer FR/AR garments, how to implement a PPE program and the warnings signs of cold stress.

Fill out the form below to download the whitepaper.

HIGH-VISIBILITY SAFETY APPAREL AND THE UPDATED ANSI/ISEA 107-2015: WHAT’S CHANGED, WHAT’S NEW AND WHAT MATTERS

In 2015, ANSI/ISEA 107 underwent an extensive overhaul. The new version merges ANSI/ISEA 107-2010 and ANSI/ISEA 207-2011 into a single document that considers all occupations faced with low-visibility hazards, including public safety workers. The changes outlined in the 2015 revision will impact wearers of high-visibility safety apparel (HSVA) across a wide range of industries including construction, oil and gas, and law enforcement, among others. Download the whitepaper to learn how the changes to ANSI/ISEA 107 affect your safety program.

Fill Out the Form Below to Download Our Whitepaper.

Ask An Expert
What is ATPV, and how is it used in your hazard assessment?

What is ATPV, and how is it used in your hazard assessment?

Put simply, ATPV—Arc Thermal Performance Value—is the most commonly reported test result of the effectiveness of FR clothing. It measures the amount of incident energy that your FR garment can protect you from before the onset of a 2nd degree burn. And the FR garments in your safety program must meet or exceed the Incident Energy required based on your hazard assessment. But it’s a bit more complicated than that.

To better understand ATPV, let’s start with an overview of two main concepts: The Stoll Curve and Arc Ratings.

The Stoll Curve
The Stoll Curve is the predictive model used to measure the probability of burn injury. It quantifies the heat levels and exposure times that result in a second-degree burn, including high temperature exposure for a short time and low temperature exposure for a much longer duration.

Arc Rating
An arc rating is the protection level afforded by an FR fabric when exposed to an electric arc. The arc rating of a fabric is determined by exposing the fabric to a staged electrical arc. In real life, arc behavior can be unpredictable, so the testing requires samples be exposed to a “controlled” arc utilizing the ASTM 1959 standard.

ATPV
That brings us to ATPV (Arc Thermal Performance Value), which is a type of arc rating. The ATPV of an FR garment indicates that you have a 50% chance of the onset of a 2nd degree burn if exposed to an electric arc with the same calories of incident energy. The fabric will usually not break open unless exposed to incident energy levels higher than the arc rating.

So why is ATPV important? Think about it this way:

Let’s go back to what ATPV measures:

The amount of incident energy that your FR garment can protect you from before the onset of a 2nd degree burn.

Why is that important?

• By definition, second-degree burns cause a blistering, blisters can break the skin (that’s why the test is designed around 2nd degree burns).

•One of the pathways to infection is broken skin.

• One of the causes of death in burn victims is infection.

When you think about it that way, matching the ATPV of the FR garments in your safety program to the value required by your hazard assessment is not just a matter of meeting the standards. For your guys, it can be the only thing that stands between them and a potentially life-threatening burn hazard.

To learn more about ATPV and Arc Ratings, download our whitepaper: Understanding Arc Ratings

Industry News
Top 5 Outerwear Considerations

The work you and your team accomplish is tough – and the weather doesn’t always cooperate. That’s why it’s important to be dressed properly while on the job, especially as winter approaches. Our FR experts give their top five tips when it comes to choosing the right FR outerwear, so you can prepare for the cold weather.

Protection

Knowing your hazard should be at the top of your list when choosing FR ¬— no matter what type of garment you’re selecting. Choose FR clothing that meets or exceeds all relevant safety standards per your hazard assessment, such as ASTM 1506, NFPA 2112 and NFPA 70E.

Layering

When your guys need to work outside, layering is key for staying warm. But layers need to be safe and compliant first and foremost. You need to think about the fabric for each item and ensure the FR/AR integrity of each layer. The best solution for maximizing both safety and comfort is to choose FR layers specifically designed to wick moisture, including FR base layers.

Breathability and Moisture Management

Overheating and perspiring are not only uncomfortable but also potentially dangerous. FR outerwear that is made from moisture-wicking fabrics helps to prevent chilling and hypothermia. You should also look for breathable layers to prevent overheating and to reduce trapped moisture.

Ease of Movement

Mobility is key while performing tasks out in the field. Tight clothing reduces blood circulation. It’s important to look for clothing that allows for ease of movement. Look for product features like pleats and gussets to provide maximum range of motion.

Additional Features

Even the smallest of details can make a huge difference in the performance of FR outerwear. Features like water-resistant finishes, comfort-enhancing knit cuffs, zip-in hoods and elastic waistbands can improve the functionality of FR outerwear.

 

When the forecast calls for cold weather make sure your guys are armed with the right FR outerwear for all-day comfort and protection.

To learn more about Bulwark’s extensive collection of FR outerwear, get in touch with a sales rep today.

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